What is a Hoosier?


Hoosier has come to be known as an endearing nickname for Indiana residents and even makes up part of their sports teams’ names, causing much speculation as to its roots. Sometimes compared to redneck or hick. However, the word does not carry negative connotations as these other terms do.

Meredith Nicholson and Jacob Piatt Dunn conducted extensive research to discover its roots; both theories have advantages, but no definitive solution is yet known.


Hoosier remains a word whose source remains a mystery, though the term is commonly used as a nickname for Indiana residents, and the state mascot is named after it. No records existed before 1830 of any use; nonetheless, many theories as to its genesis exist – some could even be considered ridiculous; but at the very least, some do hold some merit.

The most prevalent theory suggests that Hoosiers derive their name from Sam Hoosier, a contractor working on the Louisville and Portland Canal who often hired workers from Indiana – these workers became known as Hoosier’s men before. Eventually, the name spread throughout Indiana as a general label for all residents.

Other theories assert that Hoosiers get their name from whispering. A familiar story among Indiana rivermen fighters was their practice of “hushhers,” or whisperers, to quiet opponents before fighting, leading to them being called Hoosiers later. Other possibilities could include an allusion to frontier brawling where ears were frequently severed, or even James Whitcomb Riley offered up a facetious explanation that Hoosier is derived from the Native American word Hoosa which meant corn.

Once associated with negative connotations, today, the word Hoosier has taken on more positive connotations among Indiana residents and has come to represent pride and positivity for them. Historians and etymologists concur that its usage likely originated in the upland South as a derogatory term similar to “cracker,” “redneck,” and “hick.” From there, it spread to Ohio Valley communities such as Southern Indiana, where it was applied to people thought to be rustic in their mannerisms or appearance.

Jacob Piatt Dunn, a historian who spent considerable time examining this word, believed it most likely derived from the Saxon language and likely derived from “hook” or “buzzer,” meaning promontory or cliff or ridge. Dunn and other scholars’ research revealed such a word had existed in the Cumberland dialect of England during the 18th century as it spread west with settlers before finally becoming widespread usage by the 1830s/1840s.


Hoosier remains an enigmatic term with no clear origin or explanation, leaving its true nature unknown. First appearing after the 1830s, it soon gained popularity and ultimately reached mainstream use.

According to the Indiana Historical Bureau, Hoosier came about when a Louisville and Portland Canal contractor preferred hiring workers from Indiana instead of Kentucky for laboring positions on its canal system. Over time, they became known as Hoosiers, giving rise to their name.

Historians believe the term was initially pejorative. It might have referred to people from rural Indiana who were less educated or civilized, yet as it gained prominence, it took on more positive connotations – becoming an indicator of pride and a way to distinguish Indiana residents from others in the nation.

The word has also been employed in other contexts. Sandford Cox used it in his famous poem entitled The Hoosier’s Nest and can often be seen on tavern signs; additionally, it’s widely employed in songs and sea shanties.

Indiana boasts an official state song and television series that are highly watched, and notable basketball player Larry Bird hails from its shores. But perhaps one of the most significant developments occurred in the late 19th century when an Indiana furniture maker started marketing a three-part cabinet featuring a table surface and hutch that became immensely popular, likely helping change some of its negative connotations associated with Hoosier.

Hoosier State” may have come about for many reasons, and no one knows why Indiana was given this moniker. Theories include taking cues from rivers, books, or poems referencing Indiana as the Hoosier State, or it could come from the Native American language where corn is called the house and then applying this pronunciation to Indiana’s name (but this theory has been thoroughly discredited by scholars who have searched various vocabularies to no avail).


Hoosiers are natives or residents of Indiana. Additionally, this term is often used to refer to students at Indiana University, including sports team members. Although its source remains unclear, this name has been used for over 150 years. Other states’ residents may have nicknames like Buckeyes in Ohio or Suckers in Illinois, but only Indiana’s citizens enjoy such longstanding and broad acceptance nicknames.

Numerous theories have been proposed regarding the origins of the term Hoosier. One explanation claims it developed from a shortened form of “Who are yer?”. In contrast, others believe that its name came about because people living in Indiana wanted to show their pride in statehood by creating this nickname. No matter its source, no matter its purpose – all we know for sure is that its creation may have occurred by people proud of where they resided –

Others believe the term originates with riverboat culture, where men working on boats were known as Hoosiers due to their rough and uncouth nature – hence why a 1907 book by Jacob Piatt Dunn Jr. of the Indiana Historical Bureau popularized this theory. Dunn was an avid student of Indiana history who traveled extensively across its borders as part of his research into its origin.

Others have speculated that the term Hoosier derives from Harry Hoosher, a Methodist minister born into slavery who became an accomplished preacher after his release. Hoosher traveled widely, preaching at black and white congregations – his followers became known as Hoosiers.

Indiana stands out among many states by adopting its nickname from within its borders, creating it collectively by its citizens, and honoring a living person. Indiana residents take great pride in the handle as it celebrates all that Indiana has contributed to American culture.


Indiana residents take great pride in proudly sporting the nickname “Hoosier” of their state on their hats and bumper stickers. Furthermore, this term serves as the name for Indiana’s basketball team and is referenced in a 1986 movie depicting one small-town high school team’s quest for state supremacy. However, its source remains elusive and may often be used disparagingly against country folk.

Indiana residents commonly refer to themselves as Hoosiers or Indiana natives; other states often adopt demonyms based on where they hail from – for instance, Illinoisans and Minnesotans are often adopted instead. Although Indiana residents generally embrace their demonym, others in St Louis often use it derisively, similar to terms like “hick” or “white trash.”

Though its exact origin remains elusive, several theories exist regarding its source. One such theory claims that Louisville contractor Sam Hoosier hired more Indiana workers when excavating Louisville and Portland Canal during its excavation during the 1830s; thus, his crews became known as Hoosier’s men – giving rise to this name being widely adopted across Kentucky and Indiana alike.

Another theory suggests that the word arose from a slurred greeting similar to “Who are true? When someone knocks on your door. Unfortunately, no evidence supports this theory.

Thirdly, there has been the suggestion that “house” in local native languages might have inspired this term; researchers have since disproven this.

H.L. Mencken is widely credited with popularizing the term, though its usage didn’t become widespread until the late 20th century. Since then, Indiana pride has taken shape through this word’s adoption as the state motto, the team mascot for the University of Indiana basketball team, and the title of an award-winning film. While some Americans use the phrase disparagingly, most Indianans deeply admire it as a testament to Indiana’s courage and resilience.